Trees such as oaks, red cedars, pines, beeches are becoming predominantly present in the uplands above 3,300 feet. Airplanes made it possible to open up the country during its early colonial period. , Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine (including a large portion of the world's major tuna stocks), and in some parts agriculture. A large proportion of the population is illiterate, with women predominating in this area. In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. Papua New Guinea Time (PGT) is 10 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). . Various nations from Oceania, Australia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste immediately sent aid to the country.. The Central Range is much younger and higher than the mountains of Australia, so high that it is home to rare equatorial glaciers. As of 2020 there are over 30,000 members of the Bahá’í Faith in PNG. As of 2019, PNG's real GDP growth rate was 3.8%, with an inflation rate of 4.3% This economic growth has been primarily attributed to strong commodity prices, particularly mineral but also agricultural, with the high demand for mineral products largely sustained even during the crisis by the buoyant Asian markets, a booming mining sector and by a buoyant outlook and the construction phase for natural gas exploration, production, and exportation in liquefied form (liquefied natural gas or "LNG") by LNG tankers, all of which will require multibillion-dollar investments (exploration, production wells, pipelines, storage, liquefaction plants, port terminals, LNG tanker ships). Prior to the 1970s, archaeologists called the single Pleistocene landmass by the name Australasia, although this word is most often used for a wider region that includes lands, such as New Zealand, which are not on the same continental shelf. These original inhabitants first arrived in New Guinea at a time (either side of the Last Glacial Maximum, approx 21,000 years ago) when the island was connected to the Australian continent via a land bridge, forming the landmass of Sahul. The country is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire, at the point of collision of several tectonic plates. As a result, air travel is the single most important form of transport for human and high density/value freight. Native resentment against Chinese ownership of numerous small businesses and their commercial monopoly in the islands led to the rioting. The tree line is around 4,000 m (13,100 ft) elevation, and the tallest peaks contain equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936.  The Indonesian courts' enforcement of the Law on Special Autonomy blocked further creation of subdivisions of Papua: although President Megawati Sukarnoputri was able to create a separate West Papua province in 2003 as a fait accompli, plans for a third province on western New Guinea were blocked by the courts. New Guinea contains many of the world's ecosystem types: glacial, alpine tundra, savanna, montane and lowland rainforest, mangroves, wetlands, lake and river ecosystems, seagrasses, and some of the richest coral reefs on the planet. Virtually no respondent identified as being nonreligious. Following the return to civil administration after World War II, the Australian section was known as the Territory of Papua-New Guinea from 1945 to 1949 and then as Territory of Papua and New Guinea. , According to the WWF, New Guinea can be divided into twelve terrestrial ecoregions:, The WWF and Nature Conservancy divide New Guinea into five freshwater ecoregions:, The WWF and Nature Conservancy identify several marine ecoregions in the seas bordering New Guinea:, The first inhabitants, from whom the Papuan people are probably descended, adapted to the range of ecologies and, in time, developed one of the earliest known agricultures. … Human habitation of New Guinea over tens of thousands of years has led to a great deal of diversity, which was further increased by the later arrival of the Austronesians and the more recent history of European and Asian settlement through events like transmigration. Many believe human habitation on the island dates to as early as 50,000 BC, and first settlement possibly dating back to 60,000 years ago has been proposed. With a vibrant and colourful Papua New Guinea culture, more than 600 islands and 800 indigenous languages, Papua New Guinea is made up of 4 regions with 20 provinces. They were implicated in organised crime, drug syndicates, smuggling firearms, stealing fuel, insurance scams, and eeven misusing police allowances. The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. The founders, however, considered that imperial honours had a cachet. Most of these species are shared, at least in their origin, with the continent of Australia, which was until fairly recent geological times part of the same landmass (see Australia-New Guinea for an overview). 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