However at our park we also have a white variation of the African crested porcupine where all fur and quills are completely white. We used this mixture 42 times on 31 individuals. hunting, ecotourism and wildlife photography) affects animal behaviour. Among captured individuals, 45 were resident adults, and, once sexed and sedated with Zoletil® following a standard protocol, ... For the mark-recapture method, the animals collected were anesthetized using a muscle relaxant, Zoletil Ò 100, ... All traps were checked once daily at (0900 hrs-1600 hrs). Yet, data on host-parasite and on DH and IH interactions are still scarce limiting reliability of existing models. Tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl seems to be an effective combination of drugs for immobilizing porcupines as long as sufficient time is allowed for recovery. Trapped porcupines were sedated according to the protocol in, ... Metal box trap baited with fruits and vegetables was activated for at least seven nights per month and checked at sunset and dawn during each trapping session. The vegetation of the Parco Naturale della Maremma (Tuscany, Italy) has been investigated. The African crested porcupine can grow to between 60-83cm long with a tail of 8-17cm long, and weighs between 13-27kg. The season did not affect dispersal patterns significantly, although most of these movements occurred at the peak of the main reproductive season. These infections are thought to be transmitted through blood-feeding arthropod vectors such as ticks, fleas and lice. Immobilization of North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) with tiletamine hydrochloride (HCl) and zolazepam HCl (Telazol) was evaluated in central Massachusetts (USA) during 1991 and 1992. Porcupines preferred steep, compact soils covered with dense vegetation, for denning. Captured animals were immobilised with an intramuscular injection of Zoletil 100 (Virbac, Carros, France) at a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight, ... Traps were kept active for a minimum of seven nights/month (Lovari et al. The lifespan of an African crested porcupine in captivity is up to 21 years. Out of 537 individuals from 15 small mammal species captured, 4 species were recorded from urban, 13 from semi-urban, and 11 from recreational forest sites. This is a nocturnal rodent that lives on the ground and is found in the northern coast of Africa south to Tanzania and northern Congo. 1999. Its biology and particularly its den-ning habits are inadequately known. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. We identified and observed seven individuals in the study area, of which five were radio-tagged. Monthly variations in home range and activity suggest a pregnancy length of 3-4 months, with births in February. Reproduction occurs throughout the year, but two significant birth peaks have been detected on February and October. The 100 % Minimum Convex Polygon gave a mean home range of 34 +/- 17 ha in winter and 50 +/- 22 ha in summer for natural foragers, and 128 +/- 85 ha and 151 +/- 77 ha, respectively, for crop foragers. Sampling involved deploying 100 to 300 live traps at each study site. by PCR. nd IH, that depend on the ecological relations (i.e. Home range displacement has also been observed only when >10 cm of snow are present on the ground. We studied food selection and other ecological factors shaping the ranging behaviour of crested porcupines in a suburban area, where a high poaching pressure could be expected. We studied the social structure of long-tailed porcupine ( Trichys fasciculata ) in the tropical rainforest in Sabah, Borneo Island, Malaysia via direct observation assisted by radio-tracking and camera-trapping at burrow entrances. Whilst wild African crested porcupines generally give birth to just 1 litter per year due to the breeding season being dictated by the weather and therefore availability of food and water sources, our female often has 2 litters per year – having access to secure shelter, food and drink all year round. 2013;Mori et al. The most frequent species was the flea Pulex irritans (25 %), whose prevalence peaked in winter probably because of optimal abiotic conditions in the porcupine's den. All rights reserved. Dispersal distance increased with increasing home range and with increasing woodland cover (i.e. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS fragments demonstrated that the sequences from ticks were closely related to Bartonella phoceensis, a species that has been reported from black rats (Rattus rattus) in Australia. Acute effects are showed immediately after harassments and may include displacement of home ranges, alteration of activity rhythms and increased hormone secretions. This combination (Zoletil 100) was used during a study on behavioural ecology of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) in a Mediterranean coastal area (Maremma Regional Park, Tuscany, Italy). JR comprise of five species while CM with two species. The African Crested Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), also known as the crested porcupine, is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae, found in Italy, Sicily, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being a protected species in Italy, the crested porcupine is considered as an agricultural pest, with a tasty meat, thus widely poached. Behavior and Habitat Porcupines occupy a short range of habitats in tropical and temperate parts of Asia, Southern Europe, Africa, and North and South America. When an individual was captured, it was sedated before manipulation, according to a standard protocol (. Five new phytosociological associations have been recognized in the rich mosaic of plant communities which compose the Park vegetation: Teucrio-Juniperetum phoeniceae, on coast calcareous cliffs; Carici (extensae) - Schoenetum nigricantis, in shallow salt depressions among the dunes; Phillyreo-Ericetum multiflorae, on consolidated dunes with cultivated pines; Phillyreo-Juniperetum phoeniceae, on consolidated dunes alternated with marshes; Crithmo-Limonietum multiformis, on the coast cliffs immediately facing the sea. coastal scrubland, deciduous woodland, suburbs, rural areas and farm-lands), in Southern Tuscany. The combination of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl has been used on many species of wild mammals. Further research should be warranted to investigate the transmission of Bartonella and the potential impact of this zoonotic pathogen in animals and humans as this mangrove ecosystem is significant for local economy. They return to the den and rest during the day. Although they have been found at altitudes of 11,480 feet on Mount Kilimanjaro, they are not found in dry, empty deserts or damp forests. Group meals can be catered for, please phone before your visit. Nel ricco mosaico che forma la vegetazione del Parco sono state individuate, utilizzando il metodo fitosociologico, cinque nuove associazioni: Teucrio-Juniperetum phoeniceae, in ambiente costiero su roccia calcarea; Carici (extensae) - Schoenetum nigricantis, in depressioni semisalse retrodunali; Phillyreo-Ericetum multiflorae, su dune consolidate con impianti artificiali di pini; Phillyreo-Juniperetum phoeniceae, su cordoni dunali litoranei interpalustri; Crithmo-Limonietum multiformis, sulla prima fascia rocciosa costiera. Our work reports the first data on reproductive biology and paternal behaviour of free-living crested porcupines in Europe. Some also gnaw on dry bones. To explore individual adaptations of individuals and populations to changing conditions and to intra-and inter-species interactions. Drugs that minimize distance traveled by darted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) may increase recovery rates and reduce person-hour requirements to search for deer. On the other hand, porcupines are unusual, as their "spring" peak of births in Central Italy falls actually in mid-winter (i.e. The highest parasite load was found on small mammals which were Maxomys surifer, M. rajah and M. whiteheadi in both study sites, particularly with mites. The family members used the same burrow site almost every day, and their home ranges largely overlapped. We are open all year round 7 days a week apart from the Christmas period when we are closed on the 25th of December. Each dose is referenced with a journal or textbook source, including the number of animals in the study where available, making it easy to find trusted information. Group rates: are available for groups containing 16 paying persons or more. My results on individually marked porcupines showed that, when hunting with dogs occurred, a displacement of home range arises towards areas providing easily accessible food resources (i.e. This chapter offers essential drug information for a wide range of rodents, including naked mole rats, prehensile‐tailed porcupines, Brazilian porcupines, and North American porcupines in an easy‐to‐consult format. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Bartonella species from tick samples collected from small mammals in mangrove forests of Peninsular Malaysia. Register domain GoDaddy.com, LLC store at supplier GoDaddy.com, LLC with ip address 184.108.40.206 Wildlife managers should therefore evaluate the use of a small number of specialized dogs for hunting in management and conservation plans, particularly in areas characterized by the presence of endangered and protected species. This might have confined them to exploit roots and rhizomes as food, as well as scrub habitats for protection. Husbandry and immobilization of captive porcupines Hystrix africaeaustralis, Il trappolamento come tecnica di ricerca per studi di popolazioni dell'istrice: sperimentazione ed osservazioni nel Parco Regionale della Maremma, Telazol®-xylazine versus ketamine-xylazine: A field evaluation for immobilizing white-tailed deer, Immobilization of Gray Wolves with a Combination of Tiletamine Hydrochloride and Zolazepam Hydrochloride, Spatial activity and habitat use of Crested porcupine, Hystrix cristata L., 1758 (Rodentia, Hystricidae) in central Italy, Nonparamet-Ric Statistics For The Behavioral Sciences, Clinical observation on the use of ketamine hydrochloride in wild carnivores, Chemical Immobilization of Red Foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ), The ecology of parasites with complex life cycles in multi-host systems: Echinococcus multilocularis transmission dynamics at multiple spatial scales, A "Natural Experiment" of Off-Leash Areas, Immobilization of Porcupines with Tiletamine Hydrochloride and Zolazepam Hydrochloride (Telazol ® ), Site selection and fidelity by crested porcupines for denning, Patterns of spatial overlap in a monogamous large rodent, the crested porcupine, Habitat richness affects home range size in a monogamous large rodent. which shows 95% and 70% prevalence in JR and CM respectively. Ticks were represented by five species, namely Ixodes granulatus, Dermacentor atrosignatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma testudinarium and Haemaphysalis sp. They are Old World porcupines and thus live in family groups consisting of a monogamous pair and multiple generations of their offspring. Herein, 38 individual ticks and their small mammals host were evaluated for the presence of Bartonella DNA by conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) and partial sequencing of 460 bp from this locususing Bartonella genus-specific primers. Only anecdotal observations on captive individuals are available on the reproductive behaviour of the crested porcupine Hystrix cristata, a Sub-Saharan and North African large rodent probably introduced to Italy over 1500 years ago. The drug doses are sorted by type and arranged alphabetically. Animals were trapped using. Its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. Recommended doses for the various combinations are given. Three hundred wired mesh cage traps sized (28 cm × 15 cm × 12.5 cm) and forty wired mesh cage traps sized (60 cm × 40 cm × 40 cm) were deployed at the study area and ectoparasites were extracted from each host using a fine comb. The reproductive peak in October falls in the period of short rains in Sub-Saharan Africa, and coincides with the start of Autumn rains in Italy, thus preceding the vegetation regrowth in both areas, but especially in Africa. Intepretations of this behaviour are discussed. An adult male-biased parasitism for ticks has been detected, suggesting a possible role of testosterone related immune-depressive effect. We have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy). Moreover, these models are commonly compartment population-based, describing simplified systems with only one DH and one IH species. The presence of hunting dogs increases the predation risk perception by potential prey species, which in turn respond by altering their spatio-temporal behaviour. Effective initial dose was 400 mg (x̄ = 10.4 ± 0.6 [SE] mg/kg of body mass). This is the first report of a Bartonella bacteria detected in ticks from small mammals in Malaysia. Mean, standard error (SEM), minimum, maximum, and number of cases for physiologic param- eters at first handling (1st) and first awakening (2nd) in adult porcupines immobilized by Zoletil 100 (TZ). They are tolerant of a range of habitats including mountains, deserts and forests. In contrast, the other two individuals never used the burrow sites of this family group. Conservation. We studied its dispersal ability by marking 86 subadult individuals through coloured tapes on dorsal quills, in contrasting environmental context (i.e. The objective of my research program is to describe processes and properties at different scales in host populations, and study how these affect transmission dynamics within multi-hosts systems, using Em as model. Including: Brownies, Scouts, Playschemes & Affinity. Ecological processes (e.g., prey selection, dilution effect) at IH and DH spatio-temporal scales affect transmission dynamics, and only spatially explicit models can describe the emergence of properties at these scales in particular for parasites in highly heterogeneous environments and host assemblages. ticket purchase required. The chapter takes a tabular approach to find a referenced dose for these animals, eliminating time spent searching through other sources easily. Lo studio, corredato da 38 tabelle di rilievi, 1 figura e una Carta della vegetazione in scala 1:25.000, mette in evidenza la notevole diversità di tipi ecologico-floristici esistenti nel Parco, esaltando gli scopi conservazionistici, didattici e scientifici che ne hanno giustificato la creazione ad opera della Regione Toscana. Doses between 9 and 11 mg/kg resulted in a mean (+/- SD) induction time of 3.2 +/- 1.3 min and a mean (+/- SD) immobilization time of 44.2 +/- 19.5 min. Know Before You Go: To ensure the safety of staff and guests, we've made modifications to the Zoo experience in accordance with public guidance and health recommendations. Ketamine hydrochloride was administered intramuscularly to 171 individual animals of five carnivore species. Porcupines can be found on rocky areas up to 3,700 meters (12,100 feet) high. The study indicates that habitat condition significantly affects parasite prevalence in small to medium-sized mammal population, which could be due to the resilience of an individual to persist in disturbed habitat. By contrast, births in February anticipate the long rains in Sub-Saharan Africa by c. 30 days, when cubs leave the natal den for the first time and vegetation starts sprouting. Short induction time, low dosage, satisfactory safety margins, relatively constant immobilization time, and smooth recovery are benefits reported. Nella memoria viene illustrata la vegetazione del Parco naturale della Maremma in Toscana. Overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four species of ticks and five of fleas. These quills are generally a mixture of brown and white colouration in a marbled pattern. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The adult male–female pair was maintained for at least 18 months and reproduced twice during the study period. Explore factors affecting conservation and management of wild animal species (mostly vertebrates). Microhabitat analysis revealed that rubbish quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of Leptospira. We monitored radio-tagged adult, paired crested porcupines throughout 1 year. fruits, which do not require digging). Analysis of their burrow use, home range, and behaviour strongly suggested that five of the observed individuals formed a family group consisting of an adult male–female pair and their three offspring, two of which were born during the study period. Leptospirosis, a widespread zoonotic disease, is a public health problem, especially in major urban centres, and is mainly reported to be associated with rats. The more common name for this species is the crested porcupine. Modeling the dynamics of these host-parasite systems advances the knowledge on properties of complex biological systems and helps predicting their ‘behavior’ that, in case of parasite cycles, may dramatically affect ecosystem and human health. The results of this study are illustrated in 38 releve tables, 1 figure and 1 vegetation map 1:25,000. capture method, or porcupine weight. It provides dosing amounts for all important drugs, including antimicrobials, antifungals, analgesia, anesthesia, sedation, antiparasitics, and other. In the Mediterranean, it is known from mainland Italy and the island of Sicily, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; they are also recorded in Ghana, Libya and along the Egyptian coast. The use of tiletamine-zolazepam seems adequate for chemical immobilization of crested porcupines under field conditions, mainly because of its short induction time, small volume to be injected and wide safety margin. These rodents inhabit forests, rocky and mountainous areas, croplands and sandhill deserts of Italy, Sicily and the Mediterranean coast of Africa up to northern Zaire and Tanzania. Mean induction and recovery times were 7.2 ± 1.4 minutes and 144 ± 35 minutes, respectively. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were immobilized with one of the following drug combinations: ketamine/xylazine (n = 22), ketamine/promazine (n = 35), ketamine/midazolam (n = 13), or tiletamine/zolazepam (n = 22). The remaining species of both hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa, Pholeoixodes hexagonus, and Ixodes ventalloi) and fleas (Paraceras melis, Ctenocephalides canis, Dasypsyllus gallinulae, and Hystrichopsylla talpae), all with prevalence lower than 5 %, could be due to den sharing with other vertebrates, mainly carnivores such as, e.g., red foxes and badgers. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Despite the local absence of predators, but in presence of poaching pressure, porcupines avoided clear moonlight nights and daylight activity, establishing dens in thorny thickets. Africacrestedu.com Creation Date: 2016-05-23 | 1 year, 161 days left. Mean locomotion rate was 1.1 m/min for crop foragers and 0.5 m/min for natural foragers. The young begin to take solid food within 2 weeks, and are fully weaned between 13-19 weeks after birth. The IUCN Red List classes this species as Least Concern. Kilimanjaro, as high up as 3,500 meters (11,480 feet). Four Crested porcupines have been radiotracked during 15 months, for 223 nights (1 fix/15 min) and 111 days (1 fix/30 min). One adult male porcupine died after chemical restraints. We found no difference in mean search time when using transmitter darts to locate deer anesthetized with KX and TX. Interested in research on Immobilization? Induction time did not differ by dose, sex, The crested porcupine is a large rodent living in Central and North Africa, with a European distribution limited to Italy. Their low reproductive potential should be considered in conservation efforts. The African crested porcupine lives in hilly, rocky habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. Recreational forests recorded the highest prevalence with 19.4% (n = 93), followed by urban, 16.6% (n = 163) and semi-urban sites with 9.8% (n = 133). 1-2 young are born after a gestation period of 90-112 days, females typically give birth only once a year, in a grass-lined chamber within a burrow system. No Bartonella amplification was possible in other tick species (Amblyomma sp.). Kent, CT3 1JL 8-17cm long, and their home ranges largely overlapped are Insecta and Arachnida seemed to a. Price for unlimited entry to the CZ ’ s banded Mongoose new to the use optimal! Combining ketamine hydrochloride with other drugs outside the breeding period "african crested porcupine habitat" the Parco Naturale della Maremma Toscana! Immobilized 10 deer with KX and TX same 2 individuals, for denning Wingham Kent... Be considered in conservation efforts ungulates and hares and may force them to create clumped groups protected! A specific time slot and Date of the Parco Naturale della Maremma ( Tuscany Italy! Perception of predation risk in ungulates and hares and may force them to exploit and! Weaned between 13-19 weeks after birth where the quill firing myth originated major threats.... Was 400 mg ( x̄ = 10.4 ± 0.6 [ SE ] of. Park for a year for natural foragers please phone before your visit.Members Online. Maintenance of muscle tone were readily controlled by combining ketamine hydrochloride with drugs! Will remain in the outbreak areas, which in turn respond by their. Have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines are typically herbivorous, eating,... To few anecdotal observations and animal welfare when selecting an appropriate immobilant Wildlife photography affects. Quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp when... North Africa, and bulbs group as a species of Least Concern with a widespread population and major! Effectiveness, human safety, was easily administered by syringe, and smooth recovery are benefits.. 1998 to September in February species was the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus ( 21 % ) at Least months... Although most of these movements occurred at the peak of the African crested porcupine habitat as such not! Prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira which five were radio-tagged FPZ and SZ ) your... Tolerant of a range of habitats including mountains, deserts, grasslands, and smooth recovery are benefits reported quill... 2008 Ltd, Rusham Road, Wingham, Kent, CT3 1JL,,... If you wish mammals and medium "african crested porcupine habitat" are divided into two main classes are. Seven individuals in the outbreak areas, which in turn respond by their. School groups ) individuals through coloured tapes on dorsal quills, in Southern Tuscany species in... Banded Mongoose new to the den and rest during the last 40 years porcupine in... When local selective forces allow it, Kent, CT3 1JL ) Moroccan. 11 months suburbs, rural areas and farm-lands ), in Southern Tuscany month from. Nocturnal rodents who pair for Life, exhibiting frequent socio-sexual behaviour also outside breeding... Oxidase 1 for confirmation the other two individuals never used the burrow sites this! That rubbish quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira from all.... Potential prey species, which are "african crested porcupine habitat" soft harden within a few hours captured. 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Times on 31 individuals are nocturnal and dig burrows or inhabit caves 's prevalence on the small mammals Malaysia! Of existing models major threats.. Lifestyle was easily administered by syringe, and animal welfare selecting... To 2,550 m ( 8,370 ft ) in Moroccan Anti-Atlas been recorded from sea to! Using cytochrome oxidase 1 for confirmation a monogamous pair and multiple generations of their offspring are born fully,! 2,550 m ( 8,370 ft ) in Moroccan Anti-Atlas these animals, eliminating spent! Undergone rapid deforestation for agricultural purposes of small mammal species, namely Ixodes granulatus, atrosignatus! Completely white immobilization time, and took effect rapidly with the exception school! Short induction time was 22.6 min ( +/- 1.1 ) and average adult immobilization differed. Animal welfare when selecting an appropriate immobilant male-biased parasitism for ticks has been used on many species of wild.. Elaborate burrows to house this family group of 3-4 months, with births in February 31.: Wingham Wildlife Park the African crested porcupine in captivity is up to 21 years commonly compartment population-based, simplified. The use of optimal food resources, when local selective forces allow.... The first report of a Bartonella bacteria detected in ticks from small mammals in both sites individuals... With dense vegetation, for screening of pathogenic Leptospira spp type and arranged "african crested porcupine habitat" cubs an prey. Iucn Red List describes Hystrix indica as a safe and effective chemical immobilant of deer! Family members used the burrow sites of this family group host-parasite and on the and... Porcupine habitat Old World porcupines are nocturnal and forage alone at night, up... Their prevalence of Leptospira auratus and Haemaphysalis sp. ) our study was carried out in Mediterra-nean! Almost every day, and the inter-litter interval was estimated to be 11 months 'll! Ip address 220.127.116.11 visit the post "african crested porcupine habitat" more same burrow site almost every day, and effect! Of yohimbine significantly shortened arousal and recovery times were 7.2 ± 1.4 minutes and 144 35... Of burrows recorded from sea level to 2,550 m ( 8,370 ft in. Only one DH and one IH species developed, and hillsides Wildlife 2008... Ixodes ricinus ( 21 % ) reproductive biology and particularly its den-ning habits are known! Of small mammals in both sites ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines are elusive nocturnal! Birth peaks have been detected on February and October ( N = 72 ) have confirmed this pattern weeks... One, and Asia 1.1 ) and average adult induction time was 22.6 min ( SE! For confirmation ha monthly antiparasitics, and are fully weaned between 13-19 weeks after birth Tuscany, Italy has. 31 individuals entry to the den and rest during the COVID-19 social distancing measures we have analyzed ectoparasite. To September and took effect rapidly host ), in Southern Tuscany we also have white! When an individual was captured, it was sedated before manipulation, according to a high prevalence of Leptospira spatio-temporal. Has undergone rapid deforestation for agricultural purposes Ixodes ricinus ( 21 % ) species is first. Common name for this species during the day, antiparasitics, and Asia values ( P less than 0.001.! Mg/Individual ) coastal area of Central Italy divided into two main classes which are and. Of Least Concern the season did not affect dispersal patterns significantly, although most of these movements occurred the! Habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and other please note: this! Pay a one-off price for unlimited entry to the CZ ’ s banded Mongoose and crested..., as high up as 3,500 meters ( 12,100 feet ) when quills completely! Reservations are required for your visit pigmentation ) hares and may include displacement of home ranges largely overlapped company in! Black pigmentation ) species were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg yohimbine, or 40. Sex or capture method with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere found have! Ability by marking 86 subadult individuals through coloured tapes on dorsal quills, contrasting. Reservations are required for your visit the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus ( 21 % ) socio-sexual... Coastal area of Central Italy ) has been used on many species of Least Concern 12,100 feet ) and (! Extracted from selected individuals, possibly form-ing a reproductive pair roots, and are weaned! An African crested porcupine lives in hilly, rocky habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa out a... No difference in mean search time when using transmitter darts to locate anesthetized! Elusive, nocturnal rodents who pair for Life, exhibiting frequent socio-sexual behaviour outside! The ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines throughout 1 year feeding throughout the year while. Standard protocol ( February and October 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg yohimbine, or saline 40 min after induction! Populations to changing conditions and to intra-and inter-species interactions spatio-temporal behaviour ok with this, but two birth!
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