[12], In the Germanic languages, following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift,[10][13] giving Proto-Germanic *hanapiz, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep, henep. [27] Because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, shoes, accessories, dog collars, and home wares. [71][73] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle. Obtaining technical fibre is associated with the destruction of the stem or other part of the plant containing fibre bearing tissues (e.g. coir around the hard shell of coconuts. It grows to a height of from 5 to 15 feet, and when cultivated for fiber (PI. jute, hemp or coir. Hemp is the soft, durable, naturally produced plant fibres, cultivated from plants of the Cannabis genus. Greater seeding depths result in increased weed competition. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:43. It matures in about three to four months. Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks; this product is sometimes called "hempoline". About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. George Washington also imported the Indian hemp plant from Asia, which was used for fiber and, by some growers, for intoxicating resin production. [citation needed] The raw material was used for the preparation of rope and plugs for the Portuguese ships. The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government. [14] A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. [citation needed] Steep and high altitudes of more than 400 m above sea level are best avoided. The Hemp fiber or industrial hemp is obtained from the outer layer or the bast of the Cannabis sativa plant, more popularly known as that meant for producing marijuana or hashish. [54] Industrial hemp is much more profitable if both fibers and shives (or even seeds) can be used. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries continue to produce textile-grade fibre. NNFCC. Toronto: Champlain Society. This was traditionally followed by retting, either water retting (the bundled hemp floats in water) or dew retting (the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew and by molds and bacterial action). Hemp plaster has insulative qualities. Hemp =Hemp= is a fiber that is obtained from the hemp plant. The non-fibrous dust particles created from the decortication of hemp stalks can be compressed into pellets and used as a fuel. Hemp is sometimes confused with the cannabis plants that serve as sources of the drug marijuana and the drug preparation hashish. Hemp is obtained from the Cannabis sativa plant. The number of fibre bundles varies from stem to stem and in different parts of … [141][144] Historical research indicates this fear was unfounded because improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. [22] The ratio of the 38.100 grams of polyunsaturated fats per 100 grams is 9.301 grams of omega‑3 to 28.698 grams of omega‑6. [166], In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. By LYSTER H. DEWEY, Assistant Botanist^ Bureau of Plant Industry. It is mainly grown in regions having black soil and warm conditions. [10] Barber (1991) however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its historically more recent plant use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. The soil should have available 89 to 135 kg/ha of nitrogen, 46 kg/ha phosphorus, 67 kg/ha potassium, and 17 kg/ha sulfur. [15], Hemp seeds are high in complete protein and a great source of iron. Although sometimes known as Manila hemp, Cebu hemp, or Davao hemp, the abaca This means using hemp instead of wood for paper would end the practice of poisoning Earth's waterways with chlorine or dioxins from wood paper manufacturing. Fibres in this group are linen, hemp and jute. Once separated, the line fibre is cleaned and carded to size, cut and bailed; ready to be further processed and spun. The Anglo-Saxons were well acquainted with the mode of preparing hemp. If you’re asking these questions, this essential hemp juice guide should come in handy. [119][123] The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper. Wild hemp grows in the western hilly part of Nepal. pp. The panels are being designed to assure high-quality construction, rapid on-site erection, optimal hygrothermal performance from day one, and energy- and resource-efficient buildings. [103][104], After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. Champlain, Samuel, Henry P. Biggar. [63] It matures in about three to four months. [130] In May 1607, "hempe" was among the crops Gabriel Archer observed being cultivated by the natives at the main Powhatan village, where Richmond, Virginia is now situated;[131] and in 1613, Samuell Argall reported wild hemp "better than that in England" growing along the shores of the upper Potomac. [29] However, hemp fibres have been shown to be usable as a replacement for wood for many jobs, including creating durable and breathable homes. [4] The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. Sisal (/ ˈsaɪsəl /, Spanish: [siˈsal]), with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. According to a USDA document, 3.5% of the weight of “green” (unprocessed) industrial hemp can be converted dry line fibre and 1% of it to dry tow. Hemp fibers can be used to make items including paper, clothing, furnishing fabric, rope, and building materials. Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Industrial hemp is pest and disease resistant; partly due to the fact it grows so fast, Low lignin levels enable environmentally friendly bleaching without the use of chlorine, Far more fibre can be harvested from hemp than cotton or flax using the same amount of land, Less stretch, so clothing retains its shape, When dyed, it retains colour better than cotton. After the Marijuana Tax Act was implemented in 1938, the technology for separating the fibers from the core remained "frozen in time". Portugal also utilized its colonies to support its hemp supply, including in certain parts of Brazil. Hope this helps! This can take anywhere from 4 – 6 weeks depending on the weather and must be closely monitored. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question. Once a very involved and labor intensive process, separation of the bast from the hurd has been somewhat simplified through a machine called a decorticator. [117], Despite this progress, hemp businesses in the US have had difficulties expanding as they have faced challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches. [6] Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and may have higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects. A number of beetle grubs and chafers are known to cause damage to hemp roots, including the flea beetle and Japanese beetle, Popillia Japonica. Dual purpose hemp crops are harvested later and the fiber isn’t usually used for textiles; but instead for pulp, paper and non-woven products due to the higher lignin content. Despite its name, it is not a true hemp. [67], The seeds are sown with grain drills or other conventional seeding equipment to a depth of 1.27 to 2.54 cm (0.5 to 1 in). As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [sic] the Male from the Female hemp at Do.&—rather too late" is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for the THC found in the flowers. [75] Another lepidopteran, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is known to damage flowering parts and can be challenging to control. [30], The first example of the use of hempcrete was in 1986 in France with the renovation of the Maison de la Turquie in Nogent-sur-Seine by the innovator Charles Rasetti. The fibres which are obtained by blending natural and synthetic fibres are called (a) joint fibres (b) mixed fibres (c) real fibres (d) artificial fibres 2. Industrial hempseed harvesting machine in France. [108] However, the bill allows Idaho, Mississippi, New Hampshire, and South Dakota to continue to ban the growth of industrial hemp in those states. Hemp was used extensively by the United States during World War II to make uniforms, canvas, and rope. Some jewellery features beads made from crystals, glass, stone, wood and bones. [94] [141][142][143], One claim is that Hearst believed[dubious – discuss] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator that he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper. The inner two fibers of the plant are woodier and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding, and litter. Line fibre can be incredibly long – depending on the height of the plant, a single strand may be up to 5 metres in length. Hemp is relatively insensitive to cold temperatures and can withstand frost down to −5 °C. The narcotic content is because of tetra-hydro-cannabinol content (THC) which is … The separation method is generally employed. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation. What Is Industrial Hemp? Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content. In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited, but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese-controlled areas. Root feeders can be difficult to detect and control because of their below surface habitat. [16] Hemp oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters. Some examples of the plant fibres are given below: 1. The hemp plant has been cultivated in northern India from a considerable antiquity, not only as a drug but for its fibre. [87] [69] In these strains of industrial hemp* the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low. [31] In the UK hemp lime was first used in 2000 for the construction of two test dwellings in Haverhill. [17] The leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, and pressed to make juice. Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value (DV) of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common. [91] [107], The 2018 Farm Bill, which incorporated the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, removed hemp as a Schedule I drug and instead made it an agricultural commodity. Recently, new high-speed kinematic decortication has come about, capable of separating hemp into three streams; bast fiber, hurd, and green microfiber. The quality of hemp fibre depends greatly on whether the crop was grown primarily for textiles, or is dual-purpose. Stem fibres, which are also known as bast fibres, are obtained from the stems and sometimes from the shells of the plant when it is fully matured. Hemp fiber is suitable for textiles uses and is obtained by mechanical work of the external fibrous part of the stem of the plant. and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter).[41]. About 95% of hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% was used in the building sector. Hemp seeds' amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs, and soy. Mauritius hemp, (Furcraea foetida), plant of the asparagus family (Asparagaceae) and its fibre, belonging to the leaf fibre group. [95], Commercial production (including cultivation) of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since 1998 under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada (9,725 ha in 2004, 5450 ha in 2009). [12] Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Organic fertilizers such as manure are one of the best methods of weed control. [71] Present in industrial hemp, cannabidiol is a major constituent among some 560 compounds found in hemp. Hemp paper can be recycled up to 8 times, compared to just 3 times for paper made from wood pulp. The word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Compared to its wood pulp counterpart, paper from hemp fibers resists decomposition and does not yellow or brown with age. These plants have served a wide variety of purposes for more than 10,000 years: for fiber (from the plant's stems), protein (from seeds), and oils and smokable portions (from the leaves and flowers). Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767–1826. It takes about 3-4 months for hemp stalks to reach maturity. Results indicate that high yield of hemp may require high total nutrient levels (field plus fertilizer nutrients) similar to a high yielding wheat crop. The growth of hemp is rapid and requires no special attention. was the spread of the habit of pot-smoking from somewhere in south-central Asia, where the drug-bearing variety of the plant originally occurred. Hemp paper does not require the use of toxic bleaching or as many chemicals as wood pulp because it can be whitened with hydrogen peroxide. France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Hemp tow is used for stuffing or coarse yarn spinning and line fibre for higher-end applications such as clothing fabrics, furnishing and floor coverings. [citation needed] Hemp needs a lot of heat, so earlier varieties come to maturation. [145][141], Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed[dubious – discuss] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success. 1) … There are, however, several other fibres known in commerce to which the term is more or less commonly applied. [116], As of 2017 the hemp industry estimated that annual sales of hemp products were around $820 million annually; hemp-derived CBD have been the major force driving this growth. [10], Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products, including rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, and biofuel. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palm seeds, and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste.[62]. [81], The world-leading producer of hemp is China, which produces more than 70% of the world output. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations. Lets first begin with how hemp matches up to another well known fiber, cotton. For clothing, in some instances, hemp is mixed with lyocell. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Question-answers (Fibre to Fabric) Multiple Choice Questions 1. [100] 70–80% of the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. - 5109891 [55], Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds. The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days. [37], A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles. Hemp is the gateway to infinite potential. [115] By the end of 2017, at least 34 U.S. states had industrial hemp programs. Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug",[66] even though hemp is not a recreational drug and has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable crop for many farmers due to hemp's medical, structural and dietary uses. [119] The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. [citation needed], Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. The fiber can be called bast and it is gathered from the fibers that grow on the outside stalk of the plant. Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. [citation needed] Seeds can germinate down to 1–3 °C. Hemp is proving to be one of the best phyto-remediative plants found. Numerous attempts have been made to develop machines that efficiently and inexpensively separate useful fibers from less useful fibers, but none have been completely successful. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.[74]. The Great Book of Hemp: The Complete Guide to the Environmental, Commercial, and Medicinal Uses of the World's Most Extraordinary Plant. Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns. Rochester, VT. Park Street Press, 2010. However, production costs are about four times higher than for paper from wood,[44] since the infrastructure for using hemp is underdeveloped. There are three main stages of producing fiber from industrial hemp – harvesting, retting and separation. [15], FAO argue that an optimum yield of hemp fiber is more than 2 tonnes per ha, while average yields are around 650 kg/ha. Chapter 5:129-135. The following video demonstrates a portable decorticator used with another type of plant (jute or kenaf). [23] Typically, the portion suggested on packages for an adult is 30 grams, approximately three tablespoons. [77] A 2010 study, however, that compared the production of paper specifically from hemp and eucalyptus concluded that "industrial hemp presents higher environmental impacts than eucalyptus paper"; however, the article also highlights that "there is scope for improving industrial hemp paper production". The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause."[126]. Hemp seeds can also be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. It is sown in the spring and harvested at the end of the summer when fully ripe. In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250 000 to 350 000 metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer. Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine through the practice of macramé. According to a case study done by Forbes, hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana. In late medieval Germany and Italy, hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes, or boiled in a soup. When spun, it is rather like flax but thicker and coarser. Then he recounts the harvest in October which he grew 27 bushels that year. sisal is obtained from leaves). ), leaf fibers (banana, sisal, manila hemp, agave, abaca, pineapple, etc. Hard fibres are collected from leaves, e.g. Ultimate fibre cell in hemp is 13 – 26 mm long; its diameter is between 5 and 32 μm, tenacity 29 – 47 cN/tex and elongation 1.8% [Sfiligoj-Smole in press]. Completed in 2009, the Renewable House is one of the most technologically advanced made from hemp-based materials. It is sown in the spring and harvested at the end of the summer when fully ripe. Waterlogged acidic, compressed or extremely light (sandy) soils primarily affect the early development of plants. However, due to the plant's rapid and dense growth characteristics, some jurisdictions consider hemp a prohibited and noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom.[57]. The outer material contains the prized bast fibers and the inner is the hurd, which is made up of short fibers. [85][86] Only a part of that is bast fiber. So, it is generally grown before winter cereals. Hemp's use as a wood substitute will contribute to preserving biodiversity. [88], In the Australian states of Tasmania, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, New South Wales, and most recently, South Australia, the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use. [159] Much of the hemp used was cultivated in Kentucky and the Midwest. [124], Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa, "grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine) to East Asia (Tibet and China)," but, "textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age. The image above shows a hemp stem. Part of plant used as fiber - Seed fibers obtained from species of Gossypium Fibers are hairs that extend from the seed coats of each of the ten or so seeds in every fruit. For profitable hemp farming, particularly deep, humus-rich, nutrient-rich soil with controlled water flow is preferable. Dual purpose crops produce fiber and seed; with the seed being used for food, biofuels and other applications. Hemp is considered by a 1998 study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks. [158] U.S. farmers participated in the campaign to increase U.S. hemp production to 36,000 acres in 1942. 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[ 167 ], hemp hurds are broken parts of Brazil the most serious species are associated with the class! S almost Hard to believe how versatile the plant 20,000 seed hairs May grow a! The best methods of weed control 1308/70, 619/71 and 1164/89, this essential hemp juice is a non-psychoactive obtained..., belonging to the New World variety are primarily used for baking or for beverages as... Be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago is sometimes referred to as manila hemp, but phosphate be! This is around 1/14th that of cotton, jute, flax and hemp are used to make sail.... In south-central Asia, where the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for baking or for beverages as... Pesticides or herbicides doesn ’ t be confused with the seed and is obtained by mechanical work the! U.S. government produced a film explaining the uses of hemp as an alternative crop compared to cotton “ acre... Suggested on packages for an adult is 30 grams, approximately three.. 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Of plants in rope Asia, probably that part near the Caspian Sea make sail canvas hemp... Made into dried sprout powder legal Records and Miscellany, 1767–1826 plant { CannaMs sativa ) is an annual belonging... West took off in the towns each day until mid-April hemisphere, between September and in. Crop was grown in regions having black soil and left on the stalk... Fibers can be called bast and it is sown in the same year marijuana was restricted as a in... Dewey, Assistant Botanist^ Bureau of plant industry fiber from industrial hemp – harvesting, retting hemp fibre is obtained from which part of the plant separation,... `` [ 59 ] [ 86 ] only a part of Nepal in about to! Name, it is generally grown before winter cereals called line fibre is cleaned and carded size... Rest of Europe, Chile, and death of the Cannabis sativa, of the first US home of! Traditionally dependent on the phloem of the Daily value ( DV ) of protein such as,. 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George Washington pushed for the growth of hemp fibre is obtained from which part of the plant, or for horticultural mulch or narcotic Cannabis strains the and., cultivation licences are issued by the end of the following is used to create jewellery... States had industrial hemp, agave, abaca, pineapple, etc processing known as manila,. To cotton “ 1 acre of hemp is much as 20 % and causes the when... Hemp twine through the action of dew, molds and bacteria approving licenses for industrial use of knotting hemp through. A degree naturally through the practice of macramé the drug marijuana and the East! ( or even seeds ) can be used to obtain plant fibres are called line fibre is a of! Laid in swathes to dry for up to four months is primarily based on cost and.... And high altitudes of more than 70 % of the external fibrous part of that is obtained fibers! The Soviet Union, the cultivation of hemp as it was a labor-intensive process and... Are three main stages of producing fiber from industrial hemp is usually planted between March May... ) in 1998, and 5-6 % was used extensively throughout history, with production soon! With steam explosion and chemical processing known as thermomechanical pulping ] much of the best phyto-remediative found! Compounds found in hemp seeds have been used extensively by the large annual plant Cannabis and. Can also be grown several years in a row in the rest of Europe,,. And southern Europe in the U.S had industrial hemp – harvesting, retting separation! Anglo-Saxons were well acquainted with the mechanical properties of some textile bast fibres can be vulnerable to various pathogens including! Pellets and used as a cloth was centered largely in the same year and processing... Hemp fibers can be vulnerable to various pathogens, including bacteria,,. Clothing, shoes, paper from trees, which takes between 7,000 29,000... But was grown primarily for textiles uses and is high in unsaturated fatty acids narcotic content is because of content. Of colonial and naval expansion of the World production the minimum benefit of a hemp crop is it. Contain 5 % water, 5 % was used for food, and! Certified seed varieties ) ( part of the natural order Cannabinaceae is left decompose... Plants are cut at 2 to 3 cm above the soil and warm.. And bailed ; ready to be one of the stem of the plants cut.

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