Effective time management: Break each project down into the relevant tasks, work out how long you will need to spend on each part, then allocate time in your diary in order of priority. 0 Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching. Working with someone else, encouraging each other and talking through difficulties may … According to the definition of lifelong education adopted by the UNESCO Institute of Education, it should possess the following characteristics: An important distinction regarding self-directed learning is whether it’s global or a process. M… Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (1978, p. 90). These are aspects of the learning experience that students must control for themselves. Independent Learning is often linked with other approaches to learning such as personalisation, student -centred learning and ownership of l earning. Independent Learning Theory is related to the following terms: Independent learning is self-directed learning, where an individual can choose what they want to learn, how deeply they wish to learn about something and the methods/processes involved in learning. Independent learning is a self-guided process wherein the learning works to expand their knowledge and skills. Discussion of independent learning frequently arises in the context of important issues such as student-teacher roles and relationships, and the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. Independent learning (IL) is learning in which the learning goals, method or direction to achieve the learning goals, and regulation of learning process is decided, guided and managed by the learner. means that the child is reading the lesson in the text (or watching the video When readers reread familiar texts or texts where the decoding requirement is minimalised, greater attention can be placed on building meaning (Konza, 2016). Constructivism really got its start in the late 1980s. Charles Wedemeyer (1981) rooted his Theory of Independent Study in the ideal of learner freedom. However, there can often be something of a gap between our stated intentions and what we do on a day-to-day basis. 9, pp. Learning takes place through the student’s activity. On the one hand, self-directed learning is one of the most common ways in which adults pursue learning throughout their life span as well as being a way in which people supplement learning received in formal settings. Constructivists see the learner as a constructor of knowledge. Fluency continues to develop as a reader engages with texts of expanding vocabulary and sophisticated concep… Another way to understand independent study is to understand learning from a distance. The theories are treated in four parts: a short historical introduction, a discussion of the view of knowledge presupposed by the theory, an account of how the theory treats learning and student motivation, and, finally, an overview of some of the instructional methods promoted by the theory is presented. Set learning goals. This is number 7 in my blog series on major learning theories. Becoming an independent learner has many benefits, but the focus of this piece is upon the connection between independent learning and the improvement of student psychological well-being. Educators (experts) may act as facilitators or guides. Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian teacher and psychologist, first stated that we learn through our interactions and communications with others. The answer is “no” because it is clear that an individual can elect to complete only one self-directed learning course and not choose to continue with any form of education. The normal processes of teaching and learning are carried out in writing or through some other medium. Promoting Self Learning On Your Own Terms. He states that these terms such as “self-planning learning, inquiry method, independent learning, self-education, self-instruction, self-teaching, self-study and autonomous learning” (p18) are strongly related to the learner acquiring knowledge in isolation. endstream endobj startxref High psychological distress levels appear to start in the first year of university education. This section provides a brief introduction to each type of learning theory. In this sense, self-directed learning is viewed simultaneously as a means and an end of lifelong education. Different sources: When doing research, try gathering from different sources. Lead to the systematic acquisition, renewal, upgrading and completion of knowledge, skills, and attitudes made necessary by the constantly changing conditions in which people now live, Have promotion of the self-fulfillment of each individual, Acknowledge all available educational influences, including formal, non-formal, and informal, Be dependent for its successful implementation on people’s increasing ability and motivation to engage in self-directed learning activities, Deciding what knowledge and skill to learn, Deciding the specific activities, methods, resources, or equipment for learning, Setting specific deadlines or intermediate targets, Deciding the beginning of learning episode, Deciding the pace during a learning episode, Estimating the current level and progress of knowledge and skill, Detecting any factor that’s hindering learning, Obtaining the desired resources or equipment, Saving or obtain the money necessary for the use of certain human or nonhuman resources, Taking certain steps to increase the motivation for learning. But many people did not know how to label what they were doing. The development of the range of abilities involved in becoming a self-regulating, independent learner are conceptualised in terms of research and theory relating to the development of 'metacognitive' abilities and dispositions. In so doing, they hope that the pupils in their charge can take control of their own learning – both inside the classroom and beyond. Definitions of Independent Learning  – Initial Overview The concept of independ ent learning is not new, but  is it one on which there is  a surprising lack of consensus as to what it means  (Broad, 2006). Originator: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian teacher and physician Keywords: absorbent mind, sensitive period, prepared environment, autoeducation, planes of development 44, No. A … Independent learning is a method or learning process where learners have ownership and control of their learning – they learn by their own actions and direct, regulate, and assess their own learning. Discussion . Keep at it until you understand what you need to do. In this post, we explore the work of John Dewey on experiential and interactive learning. 3. Theory. Choose your sources carefully. New learning … Independent Learning is learning that is self-directed. In other words, social learning tends to precede (i.e., come before) development. 88 0 obj <>stream 661-679. Wedemeyer characterized independent study as one in which: The student and teacher are separated. �!�L��@����X���7�gt0 �+)� In the last post we examined the work of Mihály Csíkszentmihályi on Flow Theory. In the 1990s, constructivist books abounded. Set goals: Think what you want to get out of your work and remind yourself next time you’re flagging. The concept of ‘independent learning’ is associated with, or part of, a number of other educational concepts and wider policy agenda of contemporary relevance such as ‘personalisation’, ‘child- or student-centred learning’ and ‘ownership’ of learning. This helps in thinking about an element you hadn’t considered before. Independent learning is buzz term that has been around for several years within education but what is it all about? For some authors and researchers, self-directed learning is simply a method of organising instruction. We cannot control how much individual efforts a student to devote to their own study, or how serious, motivated they are to learn and make the most of the learning opportunities available to them. You may well find that you share a problem with another student on your course or even in another discipline. An interesting question arises whether self-directed learning implies a lifelong education. Fluency is another important element supported through independent reading. h�bbd``b`� $��. W�1�Օ6kY�ћY3b����g9o�E��-���H���xlv~�ï�l�.��t�M��G���i��Óz��v�]�J�L9�7_T�\isJɩr�g1����� ��N����(�%�*�k�"�v�����SV�U��7\���lu��Z�1 ��$���XJ BH����.��� ��������p ���� �q�O� �a �>O/2�Ju��bE.�f��v��e�d��,�jY*�$�j}mn��M1٦��! Summary: The Montessori Method is an approach to learning which emphasizes active learning, independence, cooperation, and learning in harmony with each child’s unique pace of development. %PDF-1.5 %���� �|�Pn��}w8X�;��&�+@����"1@z��� ����w7/g7a9����8��� Be persistent: If a task is challenging, don’t give up. ?��G��B��ϪE}_TKrST��-���hZ}���V �y��oyg��$��O��d̓�I����z����lPۄ��$� l�5�AGn����o�h��y��@pq,l�2cE�����2�u���{;܋2�.1�i��F�|�#F����b�}V��ی:9���nxݰ��_�[�m��DL�4���G��$'�#�hZ���2T�a(�Qԇ?���K�2�v��ϐ����q�}{6"�:�#��K�䕵Ĺe�g�g�^�[rCK�n�g��qp#�xMGR���w�З��¤CC�}���s�zw���C�`G"�`�x��0�[0�w�P�{�W*z������}P. The best example of this approach is found in Tough’s list of 13 steps in beginning a self-directed learning project: It is interesting to note that although this list includes many practical issues regarding self-directed learning, Tough did not ignore motivation, necessary resources and time which are important for self-directed learning. This expectation exists at other levels of education, particularly as students progress to the final year of high school. 67 0 obj <> endobj Flexibility for different levels of intelligence. Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts (learn from each other) and informs us on how we, as teachers, construct active learning communities. My plan is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of their theories, and how each can be applied in education. For example, it can be used to help researchers understand how aggression and violence might be transmitted through observational learning. For this reason, independent learning skills should be explicitly taught in the first year. independent learning in English Nursery and Reception classrooms. If you need help, ask for it! However having the skills and attitudes to take responsibility for one’s own learning is a critical key to student success in their tertiary education. In IL there is no external intervention on what, when and how to learn. Independent learning Many students have trouble making the transition to the more independent learning required at university compared with their previous study. Go solo: Practice working individually for long periods of time. The learning is defined, organised and completed by the learner. Teaching is individualized. Most influential theories of learning Learning is defined as a process that brings together personal and environmental experiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying one’s knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behaviour and world views. Academic staff are responsible for the intentional design of the curriculum and its quality-content, the ways in which it is delivered, and the ways in which student achievement of desired learning outcomes is assessed. %%EOF Constructivism is a learning theory that attempts to explain how learners learn by constructing understanding for everyone. Banksy is of the opinion that “A lot of people never use their initiative because no-one told them to” (Banksy). Discussions: If you want to expand an argument but are stuck for ideas, get a debate with friends or peers. All teachers want to develop their students into independent learners. When reading independently students are exposed to new words in meaningful contexts. If independent learning is not a common feature of your class, then … $��|9��B��Q���T��� ���(��cr���S�ke�� As is the case with many terms commonly used in higher education learning, such as ‘critical thinking’, ‘independent learning’ can mean different things to different … Constructivist Theory. This transition may be especially difficult for international students who may be used to more support and direction. On the other hand, lifelong learning provides people with skills and competencies required to continue their own self-education beyond the end of of formal schooling. 79 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8C27256813F1CD298F3AE06CD68684B9>]/Index[67 22]/Info 66 0 R/Length 71/Prev 158548/Root 68 0 R/Size 89/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Independent studies provide students opportunities to explore their interests deeper and make important decisions about how and where they will direct their talents in the future. As university level teachers, we have a professional responsibility creating optimal learning environments for our students, but students themselves must be committed to their own learning success. Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place. Why are some students more independent than others and how can we as educators breed a culture of independence within our schools and classes? Student book boxes or book bags should reflect this requirement. Independent Learning Theory is related to the following terms: The aim here is a gradual, step-by-step transfer of responsibility from the teacher to the student. h�b```f``����@ (���7r�������uz�M��*�"�0 h��UmO�0�+�q�P��;��e��H��ⵑҤJ��~>;�k�����;ߝ���I Not every student is going to work at the same pace. Learning … (1973). This section will explore the constructivist learning theory by defining constructivism, providing varying views of constructivism, and illustrating how constructivism relates to independent learning and higher education. However, Candy has a more enlightened view of this issue: The relationship between self-directed learning and lifelong education is a reciprocal one. The Journal of Higher Education: Vol. David Kolb, an American education … Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle. Skim read: Speed read or skim material before reading it in detail and then summarising the text in your notes. Seek help where necessary: Asking for support and advice is an important part. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. No, independent learning does not mean working on your own. endstream endobj 68 0 obj <> endobj 69 0 obj <> endobj 70 0 obj <>stream However, academic staff cannot be responsible for the entire student experience. Use questioning as scaffolding to independent learning. The teacher must develop effective classroom discourse, asking higher order, open-ended questions, responding flexibly to students’ responses to promote thinking, problem-solving skills and deeper understanding. Kolb’s Experiential Theory. Providing materials for independent writing; Theory to practice ; Evidence base; Links to VEYLDF; Experience plans and videos ; Links to learning foci and teaching practices: References; This section covers additional theories and pedagogical strategies to develop children’s independent engagement with texts focussing on emergent readers and writers. Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Social learning theory can have a number of real-world applications. However, the learner is encouraged to plot their own path and to value their own research as well as input from peers on the same level as information and guidance that they may gain from teachers (experts). Read actively: Be an active reader, pay close attention to the words you are reading and their meaning. Independent Learning Theory 17th November 2020 Independent study involves processing, methodology and philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation. Independent study involves processing, methodology and philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation. 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