4 1 60 30 1 1 2 × × = The answer has to have tabs as units since that is the units for the dose on hand. Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? To help with that, we’ve got our handy weight calculator here. The fact that the curves are so similar in all four figures suggests that the optimal alum doses changes only slightly for this range of turbidity values. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. 8. 6. 2 • Apply half alum dose (1. st) • Collect sediment cores (6 months) 3 Hi Wesley, I like to improve the monitoring when on-site, especially for the final TP. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? Note: Depending on local requirements, solutions of variable acidity or basicity may be produced, as well as lower assay. The calculation for the length of the tube was done by measuring the outer diameter of the cylinder around which the tube was wrapped (plus adjustments for the thickness of the tube itself) and multiplying that by ¿ to give the circumference and then multiplying the circumference by the number of times the tube wrapped completely around the cylinder. Future experiments may need to be performed to determine whether the effects of alum can vary with different mixing intensities or other variables. When dissolved in water, alum dissociates and the multivalent aluminum ions (Al3+) form various species that have an average positive charge. The data was omitted from the figure because of those errors. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. Pre-treatment dosing with lime is only required when alum doses greater than 30 mg/L are required. The other fractions were arranged so that all of the other units, mgand gr, cancelled out. Figures 1-4 display the time series plots of turbidity during the settle state in which flocculated particles are allowed to settle in a quiescent environment inside the modified glass cylinder of the effluent turbidimeter. Wastewater Sludge (biosolids) Production Estimating Calculator . For the 50 NTU experiments (Figure 1) a general trend can be seen that indicates final turbidity decreases as alum dose increase. The length of the tube was inherited from the summer team, as our team did not replace the tube that had already been attached to the set up. This translates to a flow rate of roughly 9.69 mL/sec through the 0.42m diameter pipes used in this experimental setup. Is there a general amount of P removed by biological/chemical treatment? Infiltration will change the characteristics of our influent. These aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the alum stock container. Dosage rates for aluminum salts or for iron salts are based on the molar ratio of available metal ion to phosphorous. Another general observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the settling rate of flocs increases dramatically between the alum dose of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L. Estimate how much water should you drink per day with this daily water intake calculator. *  Alternating between anaerobic and aerobic zones (Biological phosphate removal) can remove more than 20% of the total phosphorus without the use of chemical. Coagulation & Flocculation Calculations 17 Sedimentation Calculations 19 Chemical Feeder Calculations 21 Chemical Feeder Calibrations 22 Chemical Usage 23 Filtration Rate Calculations 24 Backwash Calculations 26 Chlorination Calculations 27 Laboratory Calculations 28 Horsepower & Pump Efficiency 31 Wire to Water Calculations 34 Maximizing Alum Application Effectiveness. Is UV light or ozonation as effective as chlorination? Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. The alum stock had not been used up at the start of our experiments, but we noticed that contaminants in the form of dust and lint had fallen and aggregated at the bottom of the alum stock tank. Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. The flow rate at which all our experiments will be run is Q = 1.33 mL/sec which produces a Gbar = 42 sec-1. Theoretically, one mole of Al is required to react with one mole of P to precipitate in the form of AlPO4. 5. Thetreatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a … Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 1 MGD with an alum feed rate of 130 lb/day. The equations relating Gbar to the flow rate Q for laminar pipe flow are as displayed below. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. In water treatment processes, the primary electrolyte introduced into solution as the primary coagulant is aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), also known as Alum. Since we do not have the equipment needed to observe and measure the sizes of flocs formed after each experiment, we can only observe the rate at which flocs settle under quiescent conditions and the final settled turbidity. Sometimes alum is seen in its crystalline form, although it is most often sold as a powder. The lowest turbidity reading reached in each of the four turbidity experiments were in the 10 NTU range. treatment of drinking water at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L (dry basis). We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. This precipitation simultaneously increases the consumption of aluminum, but these hydroxides also contribute to the flocculation and decanting of the phosphor particles. Moreover, the levels of contaminants in the waters in Honduras will have very different dissolved matter in it that will react to alum much differently than in our experiments. Fluoride result is over half of the MAC(1.5), does sampling increase too every 3 months until results reduce to < half? Learn more >> Protective Action Guide (PAG) Q&A, Map Templates. The optimum aluminum sulfate dosage was 2 g/L. Anoxic zones are used along with anaerobic zones as part of biological phosphorus removal. Hope it helps. Use the Radiation Dose Calculator to estimate your yearly dose from sources of ionizing radiation. The ANN created is able to calculate the dosage based on the value of initial turbidity of the fluid to be treated with a MSE 0 mg/L, achieving removal percentages greater than 93% for most cases. Figure 3: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 100 NTU. Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. Function of a htdraulic seal in a UASB reactor, Monitoring of phosphorus removal in the aeration tank, Program Director Water Wastewater Group San Francisco Bay Area - Parsons Corporation - San Francisco, CA, Water Distribution Operator II or III - Town of Mountain Village - Mountain Village, CO, General Manager-Saint Paul Regional Water Services - Saint Paul Regional Water Services - Saint Paul, MN, General Manager - Springs Hill Water Supply Corporation - Seguin, TX, Planner Scheduler (Facility Management) - The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California - Los Angeles, CA. More experiments should be run to obtain better data resolution at the alum doses between 25-55 mg/L. A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. What's the best material for pipes used in chlorination? Normally, a Mathcad program developed by the previous teams would have been utilized to gather, parse, and extract relevant data recorded through out the experimental runs; however, our team had not been introduced to the software at the time of this report's submission and had to parse and analyze the data with Microsoft Excel. alinea, I appreciate your answers to my queries. Note that the transition between laminar flow to turbulent flow in long smooth pipes occurs at a Reynolds number of roughly Re = 2300. For a given influent turbidity, there is, theoretically, an optimal amount of alum that should be added to the influent in order to form the greatest amount of flocs and thus producing the lowest effluent turbidity. Although alum is approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, it is toxic in large doses. The appropriate amount of alum required to facilitate total particle removal via the sedimentation of flocs is dictated by a couple key parameters: The concentration of clay particles and other natural organic matter (specifically the chemical properties of these contaminants and their reactivity with the dissolved Al species) will effect how much alum is needed. 1. TNTC Calculation . 1 • Collect Sediment Cores • Determine if alum treatment is necessary. Aluminum Plate Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium While finding this relationship is integral to our later experiments, the empirical values would not necessarily apply to vertical flocculators used in water treatment plants designed for Honduras. Deficient conditions in your treatment process will inevitably have a repercussion on not only your P removal but on all your parameters. 0 Results indicated that turbidity removal efficiency declined to some extent by increasing initial turbidity level from 100 to 200, 500, and 1000 NTU. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. Alum Calculator You can only enter data in the yellow fields below: Alum Strength % w/v (g/100mL) * mg/L mg/mL Pump Setting L/Hr * L/Hr mg/Hr Alum Dosed Plant Flow Rate L/second * Volume Dosed Water L/Hr Dose of Alum per Litre of Dosed Water- mg Alum/ L Dosed Water Target Alum Dose … Weight Calculator Metal gets heavy, and whether you want to see how much shipping is likely to be, or if your vehicle (or back) can handle it, it’s good to know what your order weighs. Alum Reaction with Phosphorus Al 2 (SO 4) 3.14H 2 O+ 2H 3 PO 4 2AlPO 4 + 3H 2 SO 4 + 18H 2 O The following illustrates a “stoichiometric reaction” of Al+++ with P 2 mole of Al reacts with 2 mole P (or 1 mole Al per mole P) 9.6 mg alum per mg P 0.5 mg alkalinity per mg of Alum USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L. 12H 2 O are considered to be an alum. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. The aluminum helps make the cell walls of fruits and vegetables sturdier, producing a crisp pickle or firm cherry. The leading Community in drinking waterand wastewater management. Alum doses in the range 30 to 60 mg/L have been used to treat this water, which has a true colour of 20-30 Pt/Co units and a turbidity of 20 to 40 NTU under normal river flow conditions. After canceling out units the mathematical operations are performed to obtain the answer. It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. How much pressure generally filled in a chlorine cylinder. If we maintain both flow rate and flocculator length (hence residence time) constant, we can keep mixing constant. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? How will shock loads of infiltration water affect P removal? Do deficient conditions in: anoxic/aeration/MBR tank zones have an impact on P removal? A raw water supply is treated with an alum dosage of 25 mg/L. 4. More experiments should be done to refine the data resolution of the 25-55 mg/L alum dose range for each of the 4 turbidities. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! I'm new to working with this type of treatment and challenged by: low TP limit of 0.1 mg/L, high infiltration rates, undersized equalization tank, raw data only available by one grab sample per month, O & M limited to once or twice a week, no access to remote control and monitoring and so on. Online metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the weight of Aluminum Plate metal. In order to isolate and temporarily remove alum as a variable, a relationship between alum dose and influent turbidity must be determined. Ratio-Proportion. For your question: Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? The solution to this problem was to dilute the alum to a lower concentration (1500 mg/L in our case) so that a higher alum flow rate would be required to obtain a particular influent concentration than when it was at 5000 mg/L. Given that the flocculator length is fixed, we must select and hold constant a flow rate that is will cause adequate amount of mixing but that will not break up flocs. Treatment costs range from $280/acre to $700/acre ($450=approximate average) depending on the dosage requirements and costs to mobilize equipment. Knowing your influent and effluent flow rates, as well as dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentrations in the biological tanks and the amount of phosphorous you are dealing with (influent & sidestreams). You will need to apply a strong molar ratio to achieve the required results. Geometric Mean Calculator - Fecal Coliform Reporting. Application of higher alum dosage range may improve turbidity removal from Single-Step Flocculation for reclaiming Parts Washer wastewater? These colorimetric tests allow for fast results and enable timely process control adjustments. The needed dose varies with the pH of the water and the size of the particles. This optimal alum dose should, therefore, change with different influent turbidities. Second step, we make a comparison between required alkalinity and alkalinity already in I asked a colleague about your questions and we agree with Alinea's answer. Since the pumps are unable to pump fluid through the pipes at those speeds, it is valid to assume that the flow in the pipes will be laminar for our experiments. Colorimetric measures are available and can be done quickly (providing that blank samples are measured to subtract the initial color of the sample). alum to be added and give proper precipitation is calculated using the this equation: Total alkalinity required (mg/L) = Alkalinity reacting with alum (mg/L) + alkalinity presence in the water (mg/L) {?1 mg/L alum reacts with 0.45 mg/L alkalinity}. FEEDING DEVICES; A well engineered feeding device is an integral part of an effective water treatment program. Targeting the minimum flow rate for drinking-water distribution. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Various inorganic coagulants can be used to remove phosphorus in biological wastewater treatment. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. Flocculation is the subsequent process whereby particles collide and form large aggregates, or flocs. Calculate the followings: 1. The experiments proved that the addition of alum into turbid waters prior to flocculation improves particle aggregation, leading to higher settling velocities and cleaner effluent water. 6. Furthermore, a small concentration of P, which is the case of diluted municipal waters, also requires a strong molar ratio to achieve a low resulting concentration, despite a small percentage of reduction. USALCO liquid Aluminum Sulfate is ready to use and mixes well in water. The increase in chloride in the treated water is much lower than the sulphate increase from alum, resulting in lower overall increases in the TDS of the treated water. After running a set of alum incremented experiments on influent turbidities of 50, 75, 100, 150 NTU, we extracted the data for analysis. Liquid alum has been used when large alum doses were needed. The affective diameter was 42 cm and the tube wrapped around the cylinder approximately 15.5 times, giving a total length of approximately 20.45 meters. The amount of alum required to treat a flow of 1 MGD(million gallon /day) 2. Final turbidity is a measure of whether of how much suspended particles were not affected by the alum---a high final turbidity would indicate that an inadequate amount of alum was introduced compared to the amount of contaminants in solution. Yes but will depend on where it is added. The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. Turbidity removal as a function of aluminium sulfate dose at pH range of 4-8 (a-f). Chemical Dose Determination The most important component of a control strategy for chemical phosphorous removal is the calculation of coagulant dosage. The cause of this discrepancy is unclear, but it appeared to be an isolated occurrence as the experiments run with 75 (Figure 2) and 150 NTU (Figure 4) were consistent with expectations. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. I. Yield of the calculations : Polymer consumption GPD (neat) 428.49786 : Polymer consumption GPH (neat) 17.85408 : Polymer consumption GPM (neat) 0.29757 : Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) 38.08870 : PPM of polymer needed to make the process work : 3500 : 24: Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM : 0.29757 Additionally, it appears that for the higher alum doses, the curve flattened out at approximately the same elapsed time in each of the four influent turbidity experiments. The largest alum dose used in these experiments was 45 mg/L, and while the curves show that the marginal benefit gained by adding more alum in the 40-45 mg/L range is minimal, extending the alum dose range will give more definitive evidence that we have indeed reached a critical value in alum dose. 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